co-operative learning English

Task 5 / 6 Chemical and Biochemical Engineering.

Task 5 - Read the text and then answer the following questions.

1.- What is the main idea of the text?

2.- Read the first paragraph and decide if the author is : for_________    against __________

3.- Paragraph 1 line 1, what is the meaning of the word medical scans.

 4.- Paragraph 2 line 2, what is the meaning of the word screened.

5.- Paragraph 3 line 9, what is the meaning of “book the appointment”

6.- Paragraph 4 what does the words     them / this  refer to.

7.- Who is Dr Bruce Johnson?

8.- Who is responsible of Yale Cancer Center?

9.- Does the study show that deaths can be dangerous with the screening?

10.- Does the radiation exposure from CT scans can be dangerous?

 

New study shows scan reduces lung cancer deaths June 29, 2011 6:59 PM.

By Carolyn Y. Johnson, Globe Staff

For years, physicians and smokers have wondered whether medical scans could be used to detect lung cancer in its earliest stages, potentially saving thousands of lives. Now, a study released today provides the most definitive answer yet, showing that screening of heavy smokers can indeed reduce deaths from lung cancer, a finding with major implications for the treatment of the cancer that kills more Americans than any other form. The preliminary conclusions were made public last fall, but the new study in the New England Journal of Medicine presents the data in greater detail. Overall, the study of 53,000 current or former smokers showed that screening with a form of medical imaging known as low-dose CT cut lung cancer deaths by 20 percent. The study authors estimated that for every 320 people screened, one cancer death was prevented.

Cancer specialists and patient advocacy organizations cautioned that much remains to be determined, including official recommendations for who, exactly, should be screened, when, and how often, and whether insurance will cover the test. The new results do not mean everyone should seek lung cancer screening, nor do they suggest that it is safe to continue smoking because a test exists that might prevent some deaths. But Boston hospitals are preparing for calls and questions from patients -- and some are offering the screening, even though it is not yet covered by most health insurance. “Most of us treat people with advanced disease, and most of our patients die from it,” said Dr. Bruce Johnson, a lung cancer specialist at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. “Having something introduced into our field that can cut down on the number of deaths by picking up cancer earlier and curing it is a paradigm changer.”

Johnson, a board member of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, said professional organizations will now use the full data to formulate official screening recommendations. He added that if cost were not an issue and he was advising a friend or family member who was similar to study participants -- they were 55 to 74 years old and current or former heavy smokers -- he would recommend screening. Brigham and Women’s Hospital recently started a lung cancer screening program that will be available at a community imaging center, Coolidge Corner Imaging in Brookline.“For those who want to be screened -- just like people did for mammography before there were guidelines -- you can discuss it with your physician if you decide to book the appointment,” said Dr. Francine Jacobson, a thoracic radiologist at the Brigham and medical director for lung cancer screening at Coolidge Corner Imaging, where the screening will be available for $400.

At Mass. General, a low-dose CT screening program is also available, according to Dr. Lecia Sequist, an oncologist. “Patients that have a doctor at MGH can have them order a screening CT, but they should check with their insurance to see if it’s covered so that they know the full situation before having the test,” Sequist wrote in an e-mail. The test will cost about $300 to $400, she said. Dr. Thomas Lynch, director of the Yale Cancer Center, said the New Haven, Conn., hospital has already begun to set up a clinic to do such screens and respond to people who want the scan. The guidelines on who should be screened are still being developed, as medical societies and federal agencies weigh the new data, but doctors said this was the beginning of a transformative shift in the treatment and prevention of lung cancer. Lung cancer kills about 160,000 people in the US each year. Because 7 million people in the U.S. fit the patient criteria used in the study, even a 20 percent decrease in deaths among that subset of heavy smokers could save thousands of lives.

The study is a first step; it shows deaths can be prevented with screening. Now analysts begin the delicate balancing of costs and benefits to determine how widely recommended the screening should be. The new study had been eagerly awaited after a provocative study partially funded by a tobacco company first suggested that CT scans could prevent lung cancer deaths.  Today’s study revealed that there were a high number of false-positives in the low-dose CT screening, which required follow-ups that included invasive diagnostic procedures or further scanning. The study concluded that the risk of death from invasive follow-up procedures was “a rare occurrence.”

The radiation exposure from CT scans poses some health risks, but doctors noted that the risk was much less for older patients like the ones in the study. “This is the ‘mammogram’ for lung cancer we’ve been waiting for years,” Lynch said. “The magnitude of reduction of the risk of death is as great as colonoscopy screening, and probably greater than mammograms.”

 

Grape leaves, sap and fruit have been used medicinally since the time of the Greek empire. Preparations from different parts of the plant have been used historically to treat a variety of conditions, including skin and eye irritation, bleeding, varicose veins, diarrhea, cancer and smallpox. Interest in grape products for heart disease prevention increased with reporting of possible protective effects from wine consumption in French men who also consume a high fat diet (the so-called "French paradox"). However, well-designed controlled trials of the proposed active component of grape seed extract (GSE), the oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), are lacking. It is important to note that grape seed extract and Pycnogenol® are not the same even though they both contain oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Pycnogenol® is a patented nutrient supplement extracted from the bark of European coastal pine Pinus maritima. The antioxidant properties of OPCs have made products containing these extracts candidate therapies for a wide range of human disease. Randomized, controlled trials have documented the effectiveness of OPCs from grape seed in relieving symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency, injury related extremity edema, diabetic retinopathy, arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure. Grape seed extract has been used by natural practitioners in Europe to treat venous insufficiency, promote wound healing, alleviate inflammatory conditions, and as a "cardioprotective" therapy. OPCs appear to be well tolerated with few side effects noted in the available literature. However, long-term studies assessing safety are lacking.

Choose the best title.

1.- grape for wine                           2.- grape seed                                  3.- grape juice

 

Read these sentences and decide true (T) or false (F)

___  Different part of the plants can be harmful to smallpox      

___ Grade seed extract and Pycnogenol are alike.

___ Is the OPCs from grape seed good for high blood pressure.

___ Grape seed extract is used in Greek.

___ Grape is good for health.

 

 

Task 6-SKIMMING. Read the  paragraph and put a tick where it is correct.

1.- Domes are common public structures, being used in government legislature buildings, sports complexes and religious buildings…even as covers for road salt. As homes, they are less common, although the igloo is a notable exception. And that’s too bad, because domes are incredibly strong structures that enclose a volume of space more economically than conventional architecture that is based on squares and rectangles.

 ___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

 2.- Last January the newspaper published that agriculture was growing. By March some companies were using chemical to protect the market. In July the use of pesticides and fertilizers started. In august people discovered that those products were beneficial for the crop protection and harvest.

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

3.-Crystalline structure affects the rate of calcinations, internal strength of limestone, as well as resultant CaO crystal size. The smaller crystals coagulate during calcinations, forming larger crystals, thus causing shrinkage and volume reduction. The higher the kiln temperature, the more coagulation.  The more coagulation, the more shrinkage of volume

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

4.- Traditionally, the term neural network had been used to refer to a network or circuit of biological neurons. The modern usage of it often refers to artificial neural networks, which are composed of artificial neurons or nodes. Thus that has two distinct usages:….

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

5.- Vitamins are good for your body, but doctors say that if you take so many

     vitamins you can get seriously sick.

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

6.- There are two different plants, both belong to the same plant family – Compositae – and both have small, daisy-like, white petalled flowers with yellow centers, both have a similar fragrance like sweet apples. A tea made from either of the flowers is soothing, with sedative, tonic and stomachic properties.

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

7..- There is a great deal of evidence that the use of antibacterial soap in the normal household is unnecessary and causes far more harm than good, both to human health and the environment. 

 ___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

8.- In 1985, an American submarine made and amazing discovery in the 

      North Atlantic Ocean. In 1911 the titanic was built in Belfast. On April 15, 

      1912 the Titanic hit an iceberg and sank in three hours. More than 1,5000 

      people were drowned.

 ___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

9.- Scientists are working hard to clean up our environment. Air pollution is one of the most serious problems they face. They know that a lot of pollution is caused by people burning fuels such as gasoline wood and oil. Another, pollution is water; it is caused by people too. The last one is noise pollution.

___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

10.- If you are too fat, you may soon have serious problems with your health. A group of doctors wrote a report about some of the effects of too much fat. One important effect is stress on the heart. lf you are fat, your heart has to work harder. This may lead to a heart attack or to other heart problems. Extra fat can also change the amount of sugar in your blood. This can cause serious diseases, such as diabetes. High blood pressure is another possible result of being fat. Even cancer can sometimes be a result.

 ___ Listing       ___ Time Order         ___ Comparison     ___Cause/Effect

 

 

 

 

From Outer Space


FoxNews.com reports that Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist at NASA, believes that he has found the fossils of bacteria in meteorites. In other words, he claims to have found traces of life from outer space.

Not surprisingly, his claim is controversial; many scientists do not accept that Dr. Hoover has come to the correct conclusion from what he has observed. Therefore, he has invited over 5,000 scientists to review his work and to publish their comments.

1. Bacteria are a _______.

a. group of scientists
b. place where meteors come from
c. kind of restaurant
d. form of life

2. When something is controversial, people _______.

a. get sick from it
b. believe it is ancient and extremely rare
c. have strong disagreements about it
d. brush their teeth with it

3. Dr. Hoover seems confident that his research will be proven correct because _____.

a. he is named after a vacuum cleaner
b. he has invited many scientists to look closely at his work
c. he works for NASA
d. he gets a rash when he touches meteorites

4. Based on the reading selection, which statement is true?

a. No one believes that Dr. Hoover has made an important discovery.
b. Astrobiologists are smarter than other scientists.
c. Dr. Hoover believes he has found fossils of bacteria. 
d. Dr. Hoover did his work without using a microscope.